Food & Feed Research

INFLUENCE OF STORAGE PERIOD ON OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF AFLATOXINS AND FUNGI IN MAIZE KERNELS

DOI: UDK:
631.15:582.282.123]:631.563
JOURNAL No:
Volume 45, Issue 2
PAGES
97-106
KEYWORDS
maize kernels, storage, silo, aflatoxins; Aspergillus flavus, total count of fungi
TOOLS Creative Commons License
Jovana J. Kos*1, Elizabet P. Janić Hajnal1, Ljubiša Ć. Šarić1, Dragana V. Plavšić1, Vojislava P. Bursić2, Gorica Lj. Vuković3, Jasmina M. Lazarević1
1University of Novi Sad, Institute of Food Technology, 21000 Novi Sad, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, Serbia
2University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agronomy, 21000 Novi Sad,  Trg Dositeja Obradovića 8, Serbia
3University of Belgrade, Institute of Public Health, 11000 Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 54a, Serbia

ABSTRACT

This study had two major objectives: 1) to investigate the influence of a seven-month storage period on maize contamination with aflatoxins (AFs) and 2) to examine the distribution of total count of fungi (TCF), A. flavus and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in the stored maize kernels. In the first part of this survey, 700 maize samples were collected in the period from October 2012 to April 2013. Presence of AFs was detected in 72% of maize, before entering the silos. The survey results indicated that the percentage of contaminated maize samples as well as the distribution of determined AFs concentrations changed during the storage period of seven months. By the prolongation of storage period, the percentage of non-contaminated maize samples decreased from 28% to 16%, while the percentage of contaminated samples in the concentration range 20-50 µg/kg increased from 18% to 25%. In the second part of this study, 32 maize samples from four different silos were analysed. The results showed that TCF, A. flavus and AFB1 were unevenly distributed. According to Duncan’s multiple range test, in each silo, statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were noted for all tested parameters. Furthermore, within each silo, statistically significant correlation (r=0.76 at p<0.05) between the number of A. flavus colonies and AFB1 concentrations were observed. According to the obtained results and taking into account the trends in climatic changes in Serbia, further improvement in maize management system concerning AFs is warranted. The findings of this study could be of great importance to increase the knowledge related to the AFs management strategies in Serbia as well as in neighboring countries.



Download full article PDF
DOWNLOAD PDF




REFERENCES

  1. Abbas, H.K., Williams, W.P., Windham, G.L., Pringle, H.C., Xie, W., Shier, T.W. (2002). Aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of com-mercial corn (Zea mays) hybrids in Mississippi. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 50, 5246-5254.
  2. Castellari, C., Marcos Valle, F., Mutti, J., Car-doso, L., Bartosik, R. (2010). Toxigenic fungi in corn (maize) stored in hermetic plastic bags. Julius-Kühn-Archiv, 425, 501-504.
  3. Cotty, P.J., Mellon, J.E. (2006). Ecology of aflatoxin producing fungi and biocontrol of aflatoxin contamination. Mycotoxin Research, 22, 110–117.
  4. Ellis, W.O., Smith, J.P., Simpson, B.K., Oldham, J.H., Scott, P.M. (1991). Aflatoxins in food: occurrence, biosynthesis, effects on orga-nisms, detection, and methods of control. Cri-tical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 30 (4), 403-439.
  5. European Commission Regulation (2002). Commission Regulation 2002/32/EC of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in animal feed. Official Journal of the European Parliament, L 140, 10-21.
  6. European Commission Regulation (2006a). Commission Regulation 401/2006 of 23 Fe-bruary 2006 laying down the methods of sam-pling and analysis for the official control of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. Official Jour-nal of the European Union, L 70, 12-34.
  7. European Commission Regulation (2006b). Commission Regulation 1881/2006 of 19 De-cember 2006 setting maximum levels for cer-tain contaminants in foodstuffs as regards Fu-sarium toxins in maize and maize products. Of-ficial Journal of the European Union, L 364, 5-18.
  8. Garrido, C.E., Hernández Pezzani, C., Pacin, A. (2012). Mycotoxins occurrence in Argen-tina’s maize (Zea mays L.), from 1999 to 2010. Food Control, 25, 650-665.
  9. Harley, R.M. (1997). Mycotoxins in cereals. In Mycotoxins and environmental health. Ed. J.F.D. D’Mello, The Scottish Agricultural Col-lege, Edinburg, England, pp. 1-25.
  10. Hell, K., Cardwell, K.F., Setamou, M., Poehling, H.M. (2000). The influence of storage practices on aflatoxin contamination in maize in four agroecological zones of Benin, West Africa. Journal of Stored Products Research, 36 (4), 365-382.
  11. (IARC) International Agency for Research on Cancer. (2012). Chemical agents and related occupations, a review of human carcinogens in IARC monograph on the evaluation of carcino-genic risk to humans, Vol. 100F, World Health Organization, IARC, Lyon, France.
  12. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 21527-2 (2008). Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - Horizontal method for the enumeration of yeasts and moulds - Part 2: Colony count technique in products with water activity less than or equal to 0,95.
  13. Juan, C., Zinedine, A., Molto, J.C., Idrissi, L., Manes, J. (2008). Aflatoxins levels in dried fruits and nuts from Rabat-Sale´ area, Morocco. Food Control, 19, 849-853.
  14. Kaaya, A.N., Kyamuhangire, W. (2006). The ef-fect of storage time and agroecological zone on mould incidence and aflatoxin contamination of maize from traders in Uganda. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 110 (3), 217-223.
  15. Karami-Osboo, R., Mirabolfathy, M., Kamran, R., Shetab-Boushehri, M. (2012). Aflatoxin B1 in maize harvested over 3 year in Iran. Food Control, 23, 271-274.
  16. Keller, L.A.M., Pereyra, M.G., Keller, K.M., Alonso, V.A., Oliveira, A.A., Almeida, T.X., Rosa, C.A.R. (2013). Fungal and mycotoxins contamination in corn silage: Monitoring risk before and after fermentation. Journal of Stored Products Research, 52, 42-47.
  17. Kokić, B., Čabarkapa, I., Lević, J., Mandić, A., Matić, J., Ivanov, D. (2009). Screening of myco-toxins in animal feed from the region of Vojvo-dina. Proceedings for Natural Science, 117, 87-96.
  18. Kos, J., Lević, J., Đuragić, O., Kokić, B., Mila-dinović, I. (2014). Occurrence and estimation of aflatoxin M1 exposure in milk in Serbia. Food Control, 38, 41-46.
  19. Kos, J., Mastilović, J., Hajnal, J. E., Šarić, B. (2013). Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in maize harvested in Serbia during 2009-2012. Food Control, 34, 31-34.
  20. Lević, J., Ðuragić, O., Kos, J., Varga, J., Bagi, F. (2013a). The occurrence of aflatoxins in Serbia-from feed to food. The Second North and East European Congress on Food, Kiev, Ukraine, Proceedings, pp. 77.
  21. Lević, J., Gošić-Dondo, S., Ivanović, D., Stan-ković, S., Krnjaja, V., Bočarov Stančić, A., Ste-panić, A. (2013b). An outbreak of Aspergillus species in response to environmental condi-tions in Serbia. Pesticides and Phytomedicine, 28(3), 167-179.
  22. Luttfullah, G., Hussain, A. (2011). Studies on contamination level of aflatoxins in some dried fruits and nuts of Pakistan. Food Control, 22 (3), 426-429.
  23. Maslac, T. (2013). Annual report on wheat, corn and barley for Serbia. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Grain and Feed, pp. 1-17. (https://photos.state.gov/libraries/serbia/5/pdf/grain-and-feed-annual-belgrade-serbia-3-22-2013.pdf).
  24. Maslac, T. (2015). Grain and feed annual. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Grain and Feed Animal, pp. 1-19.(https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Grain%20and%20Feed%20AnnualBelgrade_Serbia_4-1-2015.pdf).
  25. Matić, J., Mastilović, J., Čabarkapa, I., Mandić, A. (2009). Mycotoxins as a risk in the grain food. Matica srpska Proceedings for Natural Science, 117, 79-86.
  26. Pitt, J.I., Hocking, A.D. (2009). Fungi and Food Spoilage. Springer Science – Business Media, New York, USA, pp. 3-9.
  27. Pravilnik (1993). Pravilnik o mikrobiološkoj ispravnosti namirnica u prometu. Službeni list SRJ, 29/93.
  28. Pravilnik (2010). Pravilnik o mikrobiološkim kriterijumima za hranu. Službeni glasnik RS, 72/10.
  29. Pravilnik (2011). Pravilnik o maksimlano dozvo-ljenim količinama ostataka sredstava za zaštitu bilja u hrani i hrani za životinje i o hrani i hrani za životinje za koju se utvrđuju maksimalno dozvoljene količine ostataka sredstava za zaš-titu bilja. Službeni glasnik RS, 28/11.
  30. Pravilnik (2013). Pravilnik o maksimlano dozvo-ljenim količinama ostataka sredstava za zaštitu bilja u hrani i hrani za životinje i o hrani i hrani za životinje za koju se utvrđuju maksimalno dozvoljene količine ostataka sredstava za zaštitu bilja (2013). Službeni glasnik RS, 20/13.
  31. Radović, V., Keković, Z. (2014). Development a comprehensive food safety system in Serbia-A Narrative Review Article. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 43 (7), 889-902.
  32. Samson, A.R., Hoekstra, S.E., Frisvad, C.J. (2004). Introduction to Food and Airborne Fungi. Centraalbureau vor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 1-389.
  33. Santin, E. (2005). Mould growth and mycotoxin production. In Mycotoxin blue book. Ed D. Diaz, University Press, Nottingham, United Kingdom, pp. 225-234.
  34. SCS ISO/IEC 17025 (2006). General require-ments for the competence of testing and cali-bration laboratories. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.
  35. STATISTICA (2011). Version 10.0, StatSoft, Inc., USA (www.statsoft.com).
  36. Torović, Lj. (2015). Aflatoxin M1 in processed milk and infant formulae and corresponding exposure of adult population in Serbia in 2013–2014. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B, 8 (4), 235-244.
  37. Trung, T., Tabuc, C., Bailly, S., Querin, A., Guerre, P., Bailly, J. (2008). Fungal mycoflora and contamination of maize from Vietnam with aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1. World Mycotoxin Journal, 1 (1), 87-94.
  38. Williams, J.H., Phillips, T.D., Jolly, P., Styles, J. K., Jolly, C.M., Aggarwal, D. (2004). Human aflatoxicosis in developing countries: a review of toxicology, exposure, potential health conse-quences, and interventions. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80, 1106–1122.






INSTITUTE
OF FOOD
TECHNOLOGY
IN NOVI SAD
www.fins.uns.ac.rs