Tatjana A. Kuljanin*1, Vladimir S. Filipović1, Milica R. Nićetin1, Biljana Lj. Lončar1, Violeta M. Knežević1,Rada C. Jevtić-Mučibabić2

"/> Tatjana A. Kuljanin*1, Vladimir S. Filipović1, Milica R. Nićetin1, Biljana Lj. Lončar1, Violeta M. Knežević1,Rada C. Jevtić-Mučibabić2

"/> University of Novi Sad, Institute of Food Technology, 21000 Novi Sad, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, Serbia "/>

Food & Feed Research


Volume 45, Issue 2

pectin, CaSO4, anionic polyacrylamide, molecular weight, ionic degree

TOOLS Creative Commons License

Tatjana A. Kuljanin*1, Vladimir S. Filipović1, Milica R. Nićetin1, Biljana Lj. Lončar1, Violeta M. Knežević1,Rada C. Jevtić-Mučibabić2

1University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, 21000 Novi Sad, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, Serbia
2University of Novi Sad, Institute of Food Technology, 21000 Novi Sad, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, Serbia


In sugar industry, separation of undesirable compounds in sugar beet juice is done mostly by CaO and carbon dioxide. In order to reduce the amount of lime, a new method of pectin separation based on the application CaSO4 with the addition of various types of anionic polyacrylamides (PAMs) is presented. The effects of molecular weight (MW) and the surface charge type of anionic polyacrylamides on the pectin precipitation were investigated. These compounds cause the process of charge neutralization of pectin macromolecules, followed by two mechanisms of polymeric bridging effect: Ca2+ bridges between anionic polymer molecules and pectin particles that promote the coagulation of pectin and Ca2+ bridges between anionic polymers that hinder coagulation of pectin. The aim of this paper was to examine the effect of CaSO4 mixture and anionic PAMs of different molecular weights and degree of ionizaton to increase the efficiency of removal of pectin from sugar beet juice.
Two pectin preparations were isolated from sugar beet pulp. CaSO4 was added to 100 cm3 (0.1 % wt) pectin solution. Studies were performed with 10 different concentrations of CaSO4 solution (50-500 mg/dm3) with the addition of anionic PAM with two ionization degree and three molecular weight, concentrations of 3 mg/dm3. The efficiency of pectin precipitation was monitored by measuring the zeta potential. The bridging effect of Ca2+ ions between anionic PAMs and pectin has increased with an increase in the MW of the anionic PAMs. Using anionic PAM of the largest MW (1500 · 106g/mol) and a lower degree of ionization (30%), the optimal amounts of CaSO4 were measured: 340-355 mg/dm3. These optimal concentrations were achieved at the zero value of the potential zeta when the pectin particles were discharged.

Download full article PDF


  1. Alkan, M., Karadas, M., Dogan, M., Demirbas, O. (2005). Zeta potentials of perlite samples in various electrolyte and surfactant media. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 259, 155–166.
  2. AOAC (2000). Methods of Analysis of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, USA.
  3. Baraniak, B.M., Swieca, M., Slowik, A. (2009). Flocculants application for precipication and separation of proteins from lens culinaris. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimen-taria, 8(2), 33-40.
  4. Doherty, W., Fellows, O.S., Christopher, M., Gorjian, S., Senogles, E., Cheung, W.,H. (2003). Flocculation and sedimentation of ca-ne sugar juice particles with cationic homo- and copolymers. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 90 (1), 316-325.
  5. Duan, J., Gregory, J. (2003). Coagulation by hydrolyzing metal salts. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 100, 475-502.
  6. Fraj, J. (2016). Primena protein-polimer in-terakcije za formiranje mikrokapsula sa kon-trolisanim otpuštanjem aktivne substance. Doktorskadisertacija, Tehnološkifakultet, Novi Sad.
  7. Garnier, C., Axelos, M.A.V., Thibault J.F. (1994). Selectivity and cooperativity in the binding of calcium ions by pectins. Carbo-hydrate Research, 256, 71-81.
  8. Ghimici, L., Nichifor, M. (2018). Dextran deri-vatives application as flocculants, Carbohyd-rate Polymers,190, 162-174.
  9. Hilal, N., Al-Abri, M., Moran, A., Al-Hinai, H. (2008). Effect of heavy metals and poly-electrolytes in humic substance coagulation under saline conditions. Desalination, 220, 85-95.
  10. Karlovič, E. (2002). Tehnologije uklanjanja prirodnih organskih materija iz vode: Prirodne materije u vodi. Eds. B. Dalmacija, Ј. Ivančev-Tumbas, Institut za hemiju, PMF, Novi Sad, pp. 100-113.
  11. Kar, F., Arslan. N. (1999). Effect of tempe-rature and concentration on viscosity orange peel pectin solutions and intrinsic viscosity-molecular weight relationship. Carbohydrate Polymers, 40, 277-284.
  12. Koper, G.J.M. (2007). An Introduction to Inter-facial Engineering, VSSD, Delft
  13. Kuljanin, T. (2008). Sugar beet juice clarifi- cation by means of alternative coagulants and flocculants, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Tech-nology, University of Novi sad, Serbia.
  14. Kuljanin, T., Lončar, B., Nićetin, M., Filipović, V., Knežević, V., Grbić, J. (2014). The effect of calcium sulphate, aluminium sulphate and polyelectrolyte on separation of pectin from the sugar beet juice. Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture, 18, (3), 119-122.
  15. Kuljanin,T., Lončar, B., Nićetin M., Filipović, V., Knežević, V., Jevtić-Mučibabić, R. (2015). The effects of calcium sulphate, anionic and cationic polyelectrolyte in phase of sugar beet juice purification, Journal on processing and energy in agriculture,19 (5), 245-248.
  16. Kuljanin, T., Lončar, B., Pezo, L., Nićetin, M., Knežević, V., Jevtić-Mučibabić, R. (2015). CaSO4 and cationic polyelectrolyte as possible pectin precipitants in sugar beet juice clarification. Hemijska industrija, 69 (6), 617-625.
  17. Kuljanin, T., Filipović, V., Nićetin, M., Lončar, B., Muzalevski, A., Jevtić-Mučibabić R. (2016). Separation of pectin from sugar beet juice by binary system calcium sulphate/aluminium sulphate. III International Congress “Food Technology, Quality and Safety”, Novi Sad, Serbia, Proceedings, pp. 565-568.
  18. Lee, J., B., Schlautman, M., A., Toorman E., Fettweis, M. (2012). Competition between kaolinite flocculation and stabilization in di-valent cation solutions dosed with anionic polyacrylamides. Water Research, 46, 5696-5706.
  19. Лосева, В. А., Наумченко, И. С., Лисицкая, Р. П. (1990). Сахарная Свекла, 6, 43-44.
  20. Mpofy, P., Addai-Mensah, J., Ralston J. (2005). Interfacial chemistry, particle interact-tions and improved dewatering behavior of smectite clay dispersions. International Jour-nal of Mineral Processing, 75, 155-171.
  21. Mühle, K., Dobias B. (1993). Coagulation and flocculation, Ed. Marcel Dekker, New York.
  22. Pattabi, S., Ramasami K., Selvam, K., Swa-minathan (2000). Influence of polyelectrolytes on sewage water treatment using inorganic coagulants. Indian Journal Environment Pro-tection, 20, 499-507.
  23. Riddick, M.T. (1968). Zeta potential and its application to difficult water. Journal of Ame-rican Waste Water Association, 1007-1030.
  24. Shaikh, S.,M.,R., Nasser, M.,S., Hussein, I.,A., Benamor, A. (2017). Investigation of the effect of polyelectrolyte structure and type on the electrokinetics and flocculation behavior of bentonite dispersions. Chemical Engineering Journal, 311, 265-276.
  25. Yang, R., Li, H., Huang, M., Yang, H.,Li, A. (2016). A review on chitosan-based flocculants and their applicationa in water treatment. Wa-ter Research, 95, 59-89.