Food & Feed Research


Volume 45, Issue2
fruit by-product, wheat, substitution, dough properties, texture, fibre
TOOLS Creative Commons License
Aleksandra M. Torbica* 1 , Jelena M. Tomić1 , Danica M. Savanović2 , Biljana S. Pajin3 , Jovana S. Petrović3 , Ivana S. Lončarević3 , Aleksandar Z. Fišteš3 , Karolina A. Mocko Blažek1
1 University of Novi Sad, Institute of Food Technology, 21000 Novi Sad, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, Serbia
2 University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Technology, 78000 Banja Luka, Bulevar vojvode Stepe Stepanovića 73, Bosnia and Herzegovina
3 University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, 21000 Novi Sad, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, Serbia


Apple pomace, a by-product that remains after extraction of juice from fruit, is a good source of dietary fibre, minerals and different phytochemicals such as phenolic acids. Although the valorization of apple pomace as a bakery ingredient was performed by several authors, there is a lack of information on attempts of incorporation of apple by-products in the form of coextrudates with corn grits (CAPCG). In this study, sponge cakes were created with apple pomace coextruded with corn grits in the ratio of 45:55 by partial replacing wheat flour with coextrudate in the formulation at 10%, 20% and 30% level. With the increase in the proportion of coextruded particles, the farinographic characteristics of dough samples showed an increase in water absorption and dough development time due to larger particles of coextrudates, and loss of dough elasticity. Consequently, the cake specific volume decreased over the range between 3.6 - 14.2%, but only the substitution level of 30% yielded an increase in cake firmness after 1 h of cooling and after 24 h of storage. The estimation of sponge cake sensory properties using the hedonic scale from 1 to 9 showed that the most acceptable texture was found in the control sample, whereas all sponge cakes with CAPCG had significantly higher acceptance of odour and taste in comparison to the control cake. From the nutritional point of view, sponge cakes substituted with CAPCG showed higher total dietary fibre content than the control wheat sponge cake.

Download full article PDF



  1. AACC (2017). AACC Approved Methods of Analysis, 11th Ed. 80-68.01 Determination of Reducing Sugars –Schoorl; AACC International, St. Paul, MN, USA (2017). Retrieved July 02, 2018 from (
  2. AOAC (2000). Official Methods of Analysis, 17th Ed. The Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD, USA. Methods 925.10, 950.36, 935.38, 985.29.
  3. Bchir, B., Rabetafika, H.N., Paquot, M., Blecker, C. (2014). Effect of pear, apple and date fibres from cooked fruit by-products on dough performance and bread quality. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 7 (4), 1114-1127.
  4. Bhushan, S., Kalia, K., Sharma, M., Singh, B., Ahuja, P.S. (2008). Processing of apple pomace for bioactive Molecules. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 28, 285-296.
  5. EFSA (2010). European Food Safety Authority, Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre (2010). EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies. EFSA Journal 2010, 8(3),1462 [77 pp.]
  6. Hungarian Standard (1988). Lisztvizsgálati módszerek. Vízfelvevő képesség és sütőipari érték. MSZ 6369/6.
  7. ISO (1997). Determination of starch content, Ewers polarimetric method. ISO 10520 International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  8. Kohajdová, Z., Karovičová, J., Magala, M., Kuchtová, V. (2014). Effect of apple pomace powder addition on farinographic properties of wheat dough and biscuits quality. Chemical Papers, 68 (8), 1059-1065.
  9. Ktenioudaki, A., Gallagher, E. (2012). Recent advances in the development of high-fibre baked products. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 28 (1), 4-14.
  10. Ktenioudaki, A., O’Shea, N., Gallagher, E. (2013). Rheological properties of wheat dough supplemented with functional by-products of food processing: Brewer’s spent grain and apple pomace. Journal of Food Engineering, 116 (2), 362-368.
  11. Majzoobi, M., Poor, Z.V., Jamalian, J., Farahnaky, A. (2016). Improvement of the quality of gluten-free sponge cake using different levels and particle sizes of carrot pomace powder. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(6), 1369-1377.
  12. Masoodi, F.A., Sharma, B., Chauhan, G.S. (2002). Use of apple pomace as a source of dietary fiber in cakes. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 57 (2), 121-128.
  13. Namir, M., Suleiman, A.R., Hassanien, M.F.R. (2015). Characterization and functionality of alcohol insoluble solids from tomato pomace as fat substitute in low fat cake. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 9 (4), 557- 563.
  14. O'Shea, N., Arendt, E. K., Gallagher, E. (2012). Dietary fibre and phytochemical characteristics of fruit and vegetable by-products and their recent applications as novel ingredients in food products. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies,16, 1-10.
  15. Quiles, A., Llorca, E., Schmidt, C., Reißner, A. M., Struck, S., Rohm, H., Hernando, I. (2018). Use of berry pomace to replace flour, fat or sugar in cakes. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53 (6), 1579-1587.
  16. Regulation of Methods, 1988. Regulation of methods of physical and chemical analysis for quality control of grain, milling and bakery products, pasta and quickly frozen dough. In: Official Gazette of SFRJ, 74 - Pravilnik o metodama fizičkih i hemijskih analiza za kontrolu kvaliteta žita, mlinskih i pekarskih proizvoda, testenina i brzo smrznutih testa – Službeni list SFRJ, 74 (1988) (in Serbian).
  17. Sievert, D., Pomeranz, Y., Abdelrahman, A. (1990). Functional properties of soy polysaccharides and wheat bran in soft wheat products. Cereal Chemistry, 67 (1), 10-13.
  18. Sudha, M.L., Baskaran, V., Leelavathi, K. (2007). Apple pomace as a source of dietary fiber and polyphenols and its effect on the rheological characteristics and cake making. Food Chemistry, 104 (2), 686-692.