extruded meal, dietary mixture, enteritis, fecal microflora, plasma parameters, piglets

"/> extruded meal, dietary mixture, enteritis, fecal microflora, plasma parameters, piglets


Food & Feed Research


Volume 46, Issue1

extruded meal, dietary mixture, enteritis, fecal microflora, plasma parameters, piglets

TOOLS Creative Commons License
Anca Gheorghe*, Mihaela Hăbeanu, Nicoleta A. Lefter, Mihaela Dumitru, Daniela M. Grigore
National Research-Development Institute for Animal Biology and Nutrition (INCDBNA), 077015 Balotesti, Calea Bucuresti no. 1, Romania


The effects of dietary extruded linseed (ELS):walnut meal (WM) mixture (8:1) on some plasma parameters and intestinal health in weaned piglets was investigated. Forty piglets (Topigs hybrid; body weight BW=8.02±0.82 kg), age 30±3 days, were divided into 2 groups and fed 2 diets: control (C, based on corn-triticale-soybean meal (SBM)) and experimental (ELS:WM, where the ELS:WM mixture 8:1 partially replaces SBM). Blood samples were collected at 7 and 21 days post-weaning (PW). A chemistry analyzer was used to determine the plasma lipid (total cholesterol, T-Chol; HDL-cholesterol, HDL-C; triglycerides, TG), mineral and enzymatic profile. Microbial populations from fecal samples were determined by counting the colonies obtained on selected media. There was no effect of dietary mixture inclusion on plasma parameters at 7 and 21 days PW (P>0.05). The plasma HDL-C concentration was positively correlated with the alpha-linolenic (ALA) fatty acids content of diet at days 7 (r=0.94, P<0.0001) and 21 PW (r=0.89, P<0.0001), while at day 21 PW the T-Chol (r=0.52, P=0.08) and TG (r=0.54, P=0.07) tended to be influenced by the dietary treatment. Fecal score (FS) decreased at day 7 PW (P>0.05), and at day 21 PW a tendency to decrease FS as a response to dietary mixture addition was observed (P=0.07). The tested dietary mixture positively affected the microbial fecal populations by decreasing the Staphylococcus spp. (P=0.001), E. coli (P<0.0001) and fungi (P=0.004), also tended to increase the Lactobacillus spp. (P=0.08). In conclusion, the dietary mixture could be an alternative to partially replace SBM in piglet’s diet due to positive biochemical response and intestinal health.

Download full article PDF


  1. Barcelo-Coblijn, G., Murphy, E.J. (2009). Alphalinolenic acid and its conversion to longer chain n-3 fatty acids: Benefits for human health and a role in maintaining tissue n-3 fatty acid levels. Progress in Lipid Research, 48, 355–374.
  2. Che, L., Zhan, L., Fang, Z., Lin, Y., Yan, T., Wu, D. (2012). Effects of dietary protein sources on growth performance and immune response of weanling pigs. Livestock Science, 148 (1–2), 1–9.
  3. Chen, N., Yang, H., Sun, Y., Niu, J., Shuying, L. (2012). Purification and identification of antioxidant peptides from walnut (Juglans regia L.) protein hydrolysates. Peptides, 38, 344–349.
  4. Commission Regulation (EU) No. 152 (2009). Official Journal of the European Union, L 54.
  5. Directive (EU) No. 63 (2010). Official Journal of the European Union, L 276, 33-79.
  6. Farmer, C., Petit, H.V. (2009). Effects of dietary supplementation with different forms of flax in late-gestation and lactation on fatty acid profiles in sows and their piglets. Journal of Animal Science, 87, 2600–2613.
  7. Gheorghe, A., Hăbeanu, M., Lefter, N.A., Grigore, D.M, (2018). Effect of dietary extruded linseed and walnut meal mixture (8:1) on performance and some plasma biochemical para-meter in weaned piglets. BUASVM Cluj-Napoca. Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 75 (2), 121-126.
  8. Giang, H.H., Viet, T.Q., Ogle, B., Lindberg, J.E. (2012). Growth performance, digestibility, gut environment and health status in weaned piglets fed a diet supplemented with a complex of lactic acid bacteria alone or in combination with Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces boulardii. Livestock Science, 143, 132-141.
  9. Hanczakowski, P., Szymczak, B., Hanczakowska, E. (2009). Fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of meat from pigs fed different fats. Annals of Animal Science, 9,157-163.
  10. Hăbeanu, M., Lefter, N., Gheorghe, A., Al. Nagy, Marin, D., Ropotă, M. (2014). Effects of dietary flaxseed oil on the muscle fatty acid composition in Mangalitsa pigs in an extensive rearing system. South African Journal of Animal Science, 44 (3), 240-244.
  11. Hăbeanu, M., Lefter, N.A., Gheorghe, A., Tabuc, C., Untea A.E., Surdu, I., Balan, C.G. (2015). Changes in certain serum and faeces parameters in weaned piglets as a response to nutritional stress. South African Journal of Animal Sciences, 45 (2), 164-172.
  12. Hăbeanu, M., Lefter, N., Gheorghe, A., Tabuc, C., Dumitru, M., Ciurescu, G., Palade, M. (2017). Effects of dietary peas mixed with linseed (3:1) on the growth performance, enteritis and certain serum parameter in weaned piglets. Food and Feed Research, 44 (2), 173-180. DOI: 10.5937/FFR1702173H.
  13. Jansman, A.J.M., Wikselaar van P., Wagenaars, C.M.F. (2007). Effects of feeding linseed and linseed expeller meal to newly weaned piglets on growth performance and gut health and function. Livestock Science, 108, 171–174.
  14. Kiers, J.L., Meijer, J.C., Nout, M.J.R., Rombouts, F.M., Nabuurs, M.J.A., Meulen van der, J. (2003) Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhoea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 95, 545–552.
  15. Konstantinov, S.R., Awati, A.A., Williams, B. A., Miller, B.G., Jones, P., Stokes, C.R., Akkermans, A.D. Smidt, H., De Vos, W.M. (2006). Postnatal development of the porcine microbiota composition and activities. Environmental Microbiology, 8, 1191-1199.
  16. Martínez, M.L., Labuckas, D.O., Lamarque, A.L, Maestri, D.M. (2010). Walnut (Juglans regia L.): genetic resources, chemistry, by-pro-ducts. Journal of Science and Food Agriculture, 90, 1959–1967.
  17. Merck&Co. (2010). The Merck Veterinary Manual, 10th ed., Merck Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.
  18. Nyachoti, C.M., Omogbenigun, F.O., Rademacher, M., Blank, G. (2006). Performance responses and indicators of gastrointestinal health in early-weaned pigs fed low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets. Journal of Animal Science, 84 (1), 125–134.
  19. NRC (1998). Nutrient Requirements of Swine, Revised 10th ed., National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  20. Perri, A.M., O’Sullivan, T.L., Harding, J.C.S, Wood, R.D., Friendship, R.M. (2017). Hematology and biochemistry reference intervals for Ontario commercial nursing pigs close to the time of weaning. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 58 (4), 371–376.
  21. Pluske, J.R., Williams, I.H., Hampson, D.J. (1997). Factors influencing the structure and function of the small intestine in the weaned pig: a review. Livestock Production Science, 51, 215-236.
  22. Pluske, J.R., D.W. Pethick, D.E. Hopwood, D.J. Hampson. (2003). Nutritional influences on some major enteric bacterial diseases of pig. Nutrition Research Reviews, 15 (2), 333-371.
  23. SPSS (2011). Statistics v. 20.0., IBM, SPSS, Inc., USA.
  24. TOPIGS (2012). Feed Manual Topigs. Topigs, Norsvin, The Netherlands.
  25. Taranu, I., Gras, M., Pistol, G.C., Motiu, M., Marin, D.E., Lefter, N., Ropota, M., Habeanu, M. (2014). ω-3 PUFA rich camelina oil by-pro-ducts improve the systemic metabolism and spleen cell functions in fattening pigs. PLoS One, 10, 9(10):e110-186.doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0110186.
  26. Zhan, Z.P., Huang, F.R., Luo, J., Dai, J.J., Yan, X.H. (2009). Duration of feeding linseed diet influences expression of inflammation-related genes and growth performance of growing-finishing barrows. Journal of Animal Science, 87, 603–611.
  27. Wellock, I.J., Fortomaris, P.D., Houdijk, J.G., Kyriazakis, I. (2008). Effects of dietary protein supply, weaning age and experimental enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection on newly weaned pigs’ health. Animal, 2 (6), 834–842.
  28. Wen, X., Wang, L., Zheng, C., Yang, X., Ma, X., Wu, Y., Chen, Z., Jiang, Z. (2018). Fecal scores and microbial metabolites in weaned piglets fed different protein sources and levels. Animal Nutrition, 4, 31-36.
  29. Winnicka, A. (2011). Reference Values of Basic Laboratory Research in Veterinary Sciences, 1st ed, Warsaw University of Agriculture (SGGW Warszawa), SGGW Warszawa.